African Philosophy Of Education

In 1986, Njoroge and Bennaars, published on philosophy and education in Africa; introductory text for students. Following the publication of this textbook was the intellectual aridity in the field of educational philosophizing in Kenya. This is in spite of that time just a textbook or introductory prolegomenon. More important is the model proposed and developed in this book as a conceptual framework for the development of the African philosophy of education (1986, 92). This model is the UN attempted.

My paper will argue in the affirmative, although the distinction should be as non-normative and moral imperative, and may, as a matter of ability. Although we really need to develop an African philosophy of education that imperative remains unattainable as long as we have professionals with the necessary scientific capabilities.

The problem of the shortage of educational philosophers

Experts in the field of philosophy of education called educational philosophers. They should be trained in the field of technical education and philosophy of science. These two subjects must meet in one. To ‘meet in one, “means that the philosopher of education must include both technical and educational philosophy of science as an integral area of academic specialization. Education of the philosopher is the average time between the technical and educational philosophy of science. In other words it is necessary to have academic qualifications as a technical philosopher and, as professionally trained teachers.

The disadvantage of this meeting in one of these two areas is the reason for lack of funds in this area. This means those who are less than ideal is the teaching of this discipline. There are two categories of teachers of philosophy of education in Africa, which are less than ideal.

In the broadest and most experts, the former are professional educators with a philosophical basis. The latter are not academic philosophers of education. And, as Plato would say should be removed and made to give way to the educational philosopher.

Broad make philosophy of education on general principles, aims and objectives of education. Technical philosopher doing philosophy of education is too abstract and not relevant to the everyday concerns of professional teachers in the school. The latter were accused of armchair speculation, the latter accused of commonality.

Model of the African philosophy of education: pedagogy sagacity

Pedagogy in sagacity stands on two legs – one foot planted in Sage philosophy and pedagogy in other oppressed – both feet are in a conceptual model for developing the African philosophy of education formulated Njoroge and Bennaars (1986, 88-89).

Pedagogy and the wisdom of the wise Pedagogy developed as an attempt to overcome the initial impetus to draft Sage School of Philosophy Nairobi. As Gail Presbey States

I believe that the initial impetus for the start of the sage philosophy project – the protection of the Euro-American skeptics who thought the Africans incapable of philosophizing – was changed. At present, the need to study African sages is to benefit from their wisdom, both in Africa and throughout the world. I would also suggest that the title of ‘wise men’ to be problematized. Despite the fact that there were compelling reasons for early attention to rural elders forget the wise philosophers, but now the emphasis should be placed on admiring the philosophical thought, where it can be found in women, as well as in cities, and Africans. Thus, the philosophy will be further related to people’s lives, and will continue to shed light on the lived and shared experience in Africa.

Gail concludes by stating that

Lee, and how, sage philosophy continues and grows to be determined in part the ideas of those who have the will to continue their work will help define the terms “wise” and “sage philosophy” in the future.

Pedagogy of wisdom is seen here as a possible contribution to the development of Sage philosophy from the perspective of an African philosophy of education. Njoroge and Bennaars (1986, 98) formulated

… basic framework in which philosophical thinking on African education should be located. Under this model, we identified four distinct areas of concern to each reflecting the specific features of technical philosophy, a special approach in the educational philosophy and specific trends in African philosophy. These areas of concern are: Ethnophilosophy Education, Phenomenology of African education, critics of African education and Philosophical Analysis of African education.

Authors (1986, 88) it is intended regulatory ‘framework for the detection of Philosophy of Education in Africa. “Thus, they argue that (1986, 89),

… we can determine what should be the main features of the problem in Africa, or the philosophy of education, so we can arrive at a model that identifies the specific features of a genuine African philosophy of education.

For this model will be implemented two criteria or conditions must be met, namely: technical and Africa. With regard to the former criterion of ‘African philosophy of education, which will be recognized as a truly technical, (she) should have similar functions and approaches, as the technical philosophy of education “(1986, 89). There are four technical functions namely philosophy, critical, rational, phenomenological and speculation (1986, 23-24). Comply with these four functions, respectively, the four approaches to the philosophy of education is implicational, existential, critical and analytical approaches (1986, 89).

Regarding the second criterion or condition of the African philosophy should be that the African is “it should reflect trends in philosophical thought in Africa” (1986, 89). Njoroge and Bennaars (1986, 83-89) have identified four trends in African philosophy is the philosophy of ethnic, cultural philosophy, political philosophy and formal philosophy. Each of these trends, coupled with the corresponding function of the four technical functions of philosophy. As a result of a combination of four different approaches to the African philosophy of education which, ethno-philosophy coupled with speculative function leads to the effects of treatment in the African philosophy of education, cultural philosophy as a pair of function results in an existential phenomenological approach, political philosophy coupled with a critical function results in a critical approach and, finally, the official philosophy of the pair with the results of analytic functions in the analytical approach (1986, 89).

Therefore, we can define the ‘four major problem areas that may be the basis … of a truly African philosophy of education. “This ethno-philosophy of education; phenomenology of African education, critics of African education and philosophical analysis of African education. [1] In Aristotelian causality of technical responsibilities of philosophy are formal reasons, but the trends in African philosophy are material causes. Formal and material causes of co-constitutive principle of substantial time, on the merits of the African philosophy of education is possible within the framework of Njoroge and Bennaars. As they say, Wittgenstein (1981; 2.14) “What is the image that its elements are connected with each other in some way, ‘this’ pictorial form ‘of reality (2.15). In fine shape reality ‘picture … attached … actually … is at once so that the picture is a measure of what reality should be. (2.1521). As part of Njoroge and Bennars is a measure that should be seen as African philosophy of education.

Platonic mid term

The model proposed by Njoroge and Bennaars still does not work in practice. This may be due to a lack of specialists who are “extremely rare” (1986, 78) with just the right combination of technical training in philosophy and training of professional teachers (B. Ed). Further development of more African educational philosophy requires specialists with knowledge and skills in African philosophy. The requirement that the African philosophy of teachers of philosophy double edged experts in technical and vocational teachers (1986, 77-80), akin to Plato (Republic Book, W. 473d) the observation that

Cities would have no respite from evil … If only philosophers, as a rule the kings in the cities, or those whom we now call kings and rulers really and adequately study philosophy, until, that is, political power and philosophy to merge, and the different nature of those who currently deal with one at the expense of others were forcibly removed from it. Otherwise, the city we are describing will not be turned into an opportunity and see the light of day.

To paraphrase the words of Plato in the Njoroge – Bennaars we can state that Kenya will not have an African philosophy of education, if the philosophers teach and research in educational foundations, or those who teach philosophy of education effectively and adequately examine the philosophy, yet, that is, technical and educational philosophy of science are merging in African educational philosophers and other scientists, who currently hold one to the exclusion of others were forcibly removed from interference in this area. Otherwise, the proposed model of African philosophy of education will never grow into an opportunity and see the light of day. Plato is cited in the place provides an average time, which logically links the technical philosophy of science and education in the field of philosophy of education in Africa. In the medium term is a technical African philosopher, who also is a professional philosopher or scientist, which includes both technical and philosophical education profession. It is with this, which I hope is the possibility of an African philosophy of education. In those rare professionals, we can develop an African philosophy of education.

Pedagogy of the vision: The thought experiment on the African philosophy of education

Of the four trends in African philosophy, identified Njoroge and Bennars Sage philosophy is not included, but Oder Oruka (1990, 16-17) includes it as a separate trends in African philosophy. There are four trends in African philosophy, identified Oruka (1990, 13 – 20), namely, ethno-philosophy, philosophical wisdom, nationalist-ideological philosophy and professional philosophy. For Oruka (1991,43) ‘sage philosophy comes as a third alternative’, it is located between the popular philosophy, or (ethno-philosophy), and written a critical discourse or (professional trends); sage philosophy ‘is evidenced by the fact that traditional African country folk wisdom, and critical personal philosophical discourse. ” Sage philosophy is exposed to the phenomenological analysis of the model Njoroge – Bennaars in an attempt to develop an African philosophy of education. Since the model Njoroge – Bennaars requires an African philosophy of education should be developed in two points, firstly, the technique of philosophy and, secondly, the trend in the African philosophy. To develop pedagogic wisdom, phenomenology was chosen by the technical function of philosophy, and philosophical wisdom of a sage philosophy, or trends in African philosophy of these two new areas of education in Africa, there is a philosophy, pedagogy wisdom.

Banking comparison raises the issue of education

Pedagogy of the oppressed sagacity affect pedagogy. Paulo Freire, a Brazilian educator has developed a tendency in the field of philosophy of education called the pedagogy of oppressed (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed ‘is a tool for … detection of critical … dehumanization. ” ‘The main problem of’ pedagogy of the oppressed ‘is this: How can the oppressed, as divided, unauthentic beings, participate in the development of pedagogy of their liberation?” This pedagogy makes oppression and its causes objects of reflection by the oppressed, and from this reflection will come their necessary participation in the struggle for their liberation. And in this fight, and pedagogy will be remade “(1972, 25). Pedagogy of the Oppressed is a critique of traditional pedagogy, which is a teacher center, the teacher assumes a dominant role, while the students are passive. In traditional pedagogy Freire identified two dialectically against Poles , oppressors – who will be teachers, and the oppressed – who will be students. The teacher is in a dialectical opposition to the student in this case, the student teacher knowledge, but is, rather than knowledge, it is deemed to be Tabula Rasa. Freire uses the analogy of the banking industry exposing ten contradictory teacher attitudes and practices, which mirror oppressive society as a whole “(1972, 46-47). The teacher acts as a “bank clerk ‘with the use of banking methods of domination.” Freire institutions teaching paradigm shifts, when he replaced the ‘educational goals deposit solutions … with the problem of men in their relations with the world “(1972.52). It also called for the release of education, which consists in acts of cognition rather than transferrals Information (1972.53). In practice, the problem puts education first and foremost requires a solution to the teacher-student contradiction. Dialogue relations – are necessary for cognitive capacities of actors to cooperate in the perception of the same cognizable object – otherwise it is impossible “(1972, 53). Iconoclasm banking education provides the freedom for critical reflection, both teachers and students, which leads to ‘the emergence of consciousness and critical intervention in reality “. (1972, 53-54). In contrast to banking education and … … The problem, puts education ‘Freire (1972, 56-57states

… two educational concepts and methods in accordance with the analysis are in conflict. Banking education attempts to mythicizing actually, to hide certain facts which explain the way men exist in the world, the problem posed education sets itself the task of de-mythologizing. Banking education resists dialogue, problem-based learning raises concerns of dialogue as essential acts of cognition, which reveals the reality. Banking students being seen as objects of assistance; problem puts education makes them critical thinkers. Banking education hinders creativity and domesticates of intentionality of consciousness by isolating consciousness from the world, thereby depriving them of men ontological and historical vocation of becoming more fully human.

Freire, in full denial of the bank for the release of education funds from the “authoritarian and alienating intellectualism ‘is to start with the people” in the “here and now”, which is a situation in which they are submerged, from which they arise .. .. To do this reliably, they must accept their condition was not to like the same, but merely as limiting – and therefore difficult. “(1972, 57-58)

Pedagogy sagacity in an attempt to develop an African philosophy of education. He is one of the most important thought of the possibility of African education, as noted by Freire, critical reflection is also action in the sense that “action and reflection occur simultaneously” (1972, 99).

Two typologies of Sages

Oder Oruka (1991; 34) identifies two types of sages in Africa, namely, folk sage and philosophical sage.

The findings in Kenya indicate that there are two main divisions of the sage philosophy. One of them is that the sage, whose thoughts, though, and well-informed and to educate, do not go beyond the well-known folk wisdom. Such a wise man may not have the ability or inclination to use their own independent critical objections to popular belief. It is, therefore, the people’s wise man, unlike the second type of sage, philosophical sage. The first master of popular wisdom, while the latter is a specialist in teaching wisdom.

In the philosophical sage, may know how popular sage does, what fundamental beliefs and wisdoms of the community, but it makes an independent, critical assessment of what people take for granted. Thus, while the folk wisdom of the wise man stays on the first level of the order of philosophy, that philosophical sage is a second-order philosophy, which is a reflection, and rational assessment of what the first order. What is contained in the first order is a mixture of conventional marketing-customary beliefs and practices.

Oruka (1991, 37) believes that “There would be wise, even among Africans with modern education ‘, such as Nyerere. To ensure that need to be wise” to be wise, and the opportunity to use the wisdom that, in the interests of their community. “‘ Concerns sage in the study does not argue that wisdom is, by definition, a philosophy, but look at the philosophy of wisdom, that is, to get their duplication. ‘As part of this convergence, as the philosopher and the sage has the same function: they use abstract reasoning to understanding and addressing the fundamental issues of human life “(1991, 41). Oder Oruka (1991, 34) conducted a research project in Kenya. ‘One of the main objective is to search for traces of philosophy or philosophy in the traditional Africa …. conversation with the wise men alive …. Unmasking the cost of such thoughts again one of the important objectives of the sage Studies “(1991, 41). But, most importantly sage project is meant” to help justify or reject the well-known assertion that the real philosophical thought ‘has no place in traditional Africa . This requirement implies that the “existence of philosophy in Africa today is due entirely to the introduction of Western thought in Africa” (1991, 34). In the invalidity of the claim can be established only if traditional Africa were found to host philosophical sages. Draft was successful for its defined philosophical sages (those with the didactical wisdom), in Kenya, although the differences between them from the people’s elders (people with popular wisdom) (1991, 33-34).